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Psychiatry Res. 1994 Jun;52(3):295-303.

Five-component model of schizophrenia: assessing the factorial invariance of the positive and negative syndrome scale.

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VA Medical Center, West Haven, CT 06516.


A five-component model of schizophrenia has been presented by Kay and Sevy based upon an analysis of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Kay and Sevy found factorial validity for negative and positive syndromes, and they identified excitement, depressive, and cognitive components as well. They suggested that subtypes and syndromes can be mapped along dimensions presented in their model. The present study compares the five-component solution for a new sample of 146 subjects to a reanalysis of the Kay and Sevy data. Despite divergent demographic characteristics, the two samples produce similar dimensions. Correlations of component loadings and subject scores as well as confirmatory factor analysis are presented. Discussion focuses on points of agreement and important differences in the symptoms assigned to each component. How the dimensions relate to rationally derived models of positive and negative syndromes is reviewed, and implications for subtyping and other methods of examining the heterogeneity of schizophrenia are considered.

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