Send to

Choose Destination
Nature. 1994 Dec 15;372(6507):677-9.

Role of the LIM class homeodomain protein Xlim-1 in neural and muscle induction by the Spemann organizer in Xenopus.

Author information

Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

Erratum in

  • Nature 1995 Feb 2;373(6513):451.


Like all known LIM class homeobox genes, Xlim-1 encodes a protein with two tandemly repeated cysteine-rich LIM domains upstream of the homeodomain. In Xenopus laevis, Xlim-1 is specifically expressed in the Spemann organizer, whose major functions include neural induction and dorsalization of ventral mesoderm. From RNA injection experiments we conclude here that: (1) the LIM domains behave as negative regulatory domains; (2) LIM domain mutants of Xlim-1 elicited neural differentiation in animal explants; (3) mutant, and to a lesser extent wild-type, Xlim-1 enhanced muscle formation after coinjection with Xbra; (4) both of these activities are mediated by extracellular signals as seen in combined explant experiments; (5) Xlim-1 mutants activated goosecoid (gsc) expression in animal explants, but not expression of noggin or follistatin; (6) mutant Xlim-1 elicited formation of partial secondary axes, and cooperated with gsc in notochord formation. Thus Xlim-1 has latent activities, implicating it in organizer functions.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group
Loading ...
Support Center