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Pediatr Clin North Am. 1994 Dec;41(6):1183-99.

Emergency alternatives to intravenous access. Intraosseous, intratracheal, sublingual, and other-site drug administration.

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Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, University Community Hospital, Tampa, Florida.


Difficulties and delays in establishing intravenous access are not uncommon in emergency situations in pediatrics. Alternatives to venous cannulation exist, including intraosseous access, intratracheal drug administration, sublingual and intralingual injection, the intrapenile route, and intracardiac injection. Each of these emergency alternatives to intravenous access is discussed from the historical, technical, utilitarian, and risk-benefit aspects. It is concluded that the intraosseous effective alternative to intravenous access in emergency situations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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