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Exp Cell Res. 1994 Dec;215(2):257-62.

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen bound to DNA synthesis sites: phosphorylation and association with cyclin D1 and cyclin A.

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Centro di Studio per l'Istochimica del C.N.R., Dipartimento di Biologia Animale, Università di Pavia, Italy.


Evidence is presented that association of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) with nuclear chromatin in human fibroblasts is related to the phosphorylation status of the protein. Using a hypotonic lysis procedure to extract the soluble form of PCNA, it has been shown that the remaining nuclear-bound form, predominantly in S-phase cells, is highly phosphorylated. Cells in early G1, or in G2 + M phases, contain basal levels of the bound form of the protein that is only weakly phosphorylated. Using fractionated immunoprecipitation techniques, PCNA was found to be associated with cyclin A in both soluble and insoluble fractions. In contrast, association of PCNA with cyclin D1 was found in the soluble fraction, while no detectable levels were present in the insoluble fraction. Immunofluorescence labeling and flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle distribution of cyclin D1 and cyclin A showed that, like PCNA, maximal levels of both proteins were bound to nuclear structures at the G1/S phase boundary. These results suggest that binding of PCNA to DNA synthesis sites occurs after phosphorylation. Association with cyclin D1 and cyclin A might occur in a macromolecular complex assembled at the G1/S phase boundary to drive activation of DNA replication factors.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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