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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Nov 8;91(23):11017-21.

Synergistic anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 effect of hydroxamate compounds with 2',3'-dideoxyinosine in infected resting human lymphocytes.

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Compagnie de Développement Aguettant Société Anonyme, Lyon, France.


The cellular models generally used in the in vitro evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus compounds are dividing cells. A model constituted by resting lymphocytes may more accurately reflect a drug's future efficacy in humans, since viral DNA synthesis is known to take place in quiescent cells, creating a reservoir of infected cells awaiting activation to complete their viral replication cycle and to produce infectious virions. We report here the activity of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, 2',3'-dideoxyinosine, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine, and two hydroxamates, D-aspartic acid beta-hydroxamate and hydroxycarbamate (hydroxyurea), alone and in various combinations, in an in vitro model based on resting lymphocytes. In our model, resting peripheral blood lymphocytes were infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and treated with drugs for 7 days, at which time drugs were removed and the cells were activated by phytohemagglutinin. We show that under these conditions 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, 2',3'-dideoxyinosine, and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine, alone or in combination, neither fully inhibit viral production nor protect lymphocytes from the cytopathic effect of viral replication, at concentrations corresponding to the peak plasma levels observed in a typical treatment schedule in humans. In contrast, we report the synergistic effect of treatment by each hydroxamate with 2',3'-dideoxyinosine of infected resting lymphocytes, resulting in the total suppression of viral production, total protection against the cytopathic effect induced by viral replication, and no effect on the ability of the cells to replicate in this cell culture system.

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