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J Infect Dis. 1994 Nov;170(5):1077-85.

Identification and assessment of known and novel human papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction amplification, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, nucleotide sequence, and phylogenetic algorithms.

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Laboratory for Papillomavirus Biology, National University of Singapore.

Erratum in

  • J Infect Dis 1996 Feb;173(2):516.


The identification and taxonomy of papillomaviruses has become increasingly complex, as approximately 70 human papillomavirus (HPV) types have been described and novel HPV genomes continue to be identified. Methods and corresponding DNA sequence data bases were designed for the reliable identification of mucosal HPV genomes from clinical specimens. HPVs are identified by the amplification of a fragment of the L1 region by consensus primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent hybridization or restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. L1 PCR fragments may be further characterized by nucleotide sequencing. Conservation of 30 (of 151) predicted amino acids identifies HPV genomic fragments, and nucleotide sequence alignments allow calculation of their phylogenetic relatedness. Sequence differences > 10% from any known HPV type suggest a novel HPV type. Phylogenetic relationships with known HPV types may permit predictions of biology. With these criteria, 10 PCR fragments were identified that would qualify as new genital HPV types after complete genomic isolation.

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