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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 Nov;79(5):1310-6.

The relation of smoking, age, relative weight, and dietary intake to serum adrenal steroids, sex hormones, and sex hormone-binding globulin in middle-aged men.

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Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Channing Laboratory, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.


The relationships of cigarette smoking, age, relative weight, and dietary intake to serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, cortisol, 3-alpha-androstanediol, 3-alpha-androstanediol-glucuronide, testosterone, albumin-bound testosterone, free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were examined cross-sectionally in 1241 randomly sampled middle-aged U.S. men. Compared with nonsmokers and independent of relative weight (body mass index) and age, cigarette smokers had increased serum levels of DHEA (18% higher, P = 0.0002), DHEAS (13% higher, P = 0.0007), cortisol (5% higher, P = 0.01), androstenedione (33% higher, P = 0.0001), testosterone (9% higher, P = 0.009), DHT (14% higher, P = 0.004), and SHBG (8% higher, P = 0.004). Androstenedione, total plasma testosterone, albumin-bound testosterone, DHT, and SHBG decreased with increasing relative weight. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG and negatively associated with albumin-bound testosterone, DHEA, and DHEAS. An association was found between alcohol intake and DHEA (r = 0.15; P = 0.0001), cortisol (r = 0.10; P = 0.0007), and 3-alpha-androstanediol-glucuronide (r = 0.08; P = 0.0004). Cortisol was the only hormone that was associated with carbohydrate intake (r = -0.09; P = 0.002). The only hormones associated with dietary lipids were DHT (for vegetable fat, r = 0.07; P = 0.02), cortisol (for total fat, r = 0.08; P = 0.007), and SHBG (for animal fat, r = -0.06; P = 0.05). In addition, SHBG was positively associated with dietary (r = 0.07; P = 0.008) and crude (r = 0.08; P = 0.007) fiber. These data suggest that serum adrenal steroid and sex hormone concentrations in middle-aged men are more influenced by cigarette smoking, age, and obesity than by dietary intake; however, serum adrenal steroids were influenced by alcohol intake.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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