Send to

Choose Destination
J Biol Chem. 1994 Nov 11;269(45):27855-62.

A redox factor protein, ref1, is involved in negative gene regulation by extracellular calcium.

Author information

Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Japan.


A rise in extracellular calcium (Ca2+e) suppresses not only secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) but also expression of the PTH gene to ensure constant plasma Ca2+ level. A nuclear protein(s) in a wide variety of cells bound to the specific DNA elements (negative Ca2+ responsive elements, nCaREs) in the human PTH gene in sequence-specific and Ca2+e concentration-dependent manners. Our Southwestern cloning revealed that a redox factor protein (ref1), which was known to activate several transcription factors via alterations of their redox state, belonged to an nCaRE binding protein. The level of ref1 mRNA as well as of its protein was elevated by an increase in Ca2+e concentration. In gel shift assay, anti-ref1 antibody eliminated formation of the nCaRE-protein complex. We also found that there was another protein(s) interacting with nCaREs and ref1. Further, experiments with an antisense-ref cDNA expression vector introduced into cultured cells suggested that DNA (nCaRE)-ref1 interaction led to Ca2+e-mediated transcriptional suppression. Thus, it is concluded that ref1 possesses transcription repressor activity in addition to its function as a transcriptional auxiliary protein.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire
Loading ...
Support Center