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Exp Gerontol. 1994 May-Aug;29(3-4):495-509.

Epidemiologic studies of menopause: changes in risk factors and disease.

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University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public Health Department of Epidemiology, Pennsylvania 15261.


There have been important studies of changes in risk factors and psychosocial variables during peri- and postmenopause. Most of the studies have been done in whites. Studies have clearly documented changes in behavior and biological variables related to menopause. The most critical questions bear on the interrelationships between sex steroid hormone levels, life-styles, including diet, exercise, alcohol consumption, obesity, and changes in key risk factors that are associated with the major causes of morbidity and mortality among postmenopausal women. The best study designs should be longitudinal and include frequent, accurate, and reproducible measurements of biological and psychosocial variables. Importantly, studies should be done in heterogeneous populations. The most critical variables may be measures of the degree of obesity and fatness, diet, and exercise and their relationship to hormonal changes occurring during the peri- and postmenopausal period.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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