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Endocrinology. 1994 Oct;135(4):1359-66.

Stimulation of androgen-regulated transactivation by modulators of protein phosphorylation.

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Department of Physiology, University of Helsinki, Finland.


The effect of modulators of protein phosphorylation on the transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) was studied under transient expression conditions. Activators of protein kinase-A [8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP)] and protein kinase-C (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) or an inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1 and -2A (okadaic acid) influenced minimally pMMTV-chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT) activity in CV-1 cells cotransfected with an AR expression plasmid in the absence of androgen. In the presence of testosterone, however, all compounds enhanced AR-mediated transactivation by 2- to 4-fold. A nonsteroidal antiandrogen, Casodex, behaved as a pure antagonist; it blunted the action of testosterone and was not rendered agonistic by activators of protein kinase-A. A reporter plasmid containing two androgen response elements (AREs) in front of the thymidine kinase promoter (pARE2tk-CAT) was also used to examine promoter specificity. It was activated by 8-Br-cAMP, forskolin, or okadaic acid even without AR or androgen. However, when forskolin or okadaic acid was used together with androgen and AR, the resulting AR-dependent transactivation of pARE2tk-CAT was more than additive. Intact DNA- and ligand-binding domains, but not the N-terminal amino acid residues 40-147, of the receptor were mandatory for the synergism between protein kinase-A activators and androgen. Immunoreactive AR content in transfected COS-1 cells was not influenced by exposure to 8-Br-cAMP. Similar results were obtained by ligand binding assays. Quantitative or qualitative differences were not observed in DNA-binding characteristics between receptors extracted from cells treated with testosterone with or without protein kinase-A activator. Collectively, the synergistic stimulation of AR-dependent transactivation by androgen and protein kinase activators is not due to changes in cellular AR content or affinity of the receptor for the cognate DNA element; rather, this phenomenon seems to result from altered interaction of ligand-activated AR with other proteins in the transcription machinery.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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