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Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1994 Sep;39(3):172-8.

Characterization and augmentation of CD4+ cytotoxic T cell lines against melanoma.

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John Wayne Cancer Institute at Saint John's Hospital and Health Center, Santa Monica, CA 90404.


Cytotoxic T cells have been implicated in the control of the progression of human melanoma. Most studies on human tumor T cell immunity have focused on the CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) phenotype; however, CD3+CD4+ CTL are important effector cells in other diseases and may also contribute to antimelanoma immunity. In this study we compared the functional activity of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ CTL lines generated against autologous melanoma cells. CD8+ CTL had twofold higher cytotoxicity and serine esterase activity than CD4+ CTL. CD8+ CTL also were better binders to autologous melanoma cells. Binding of both CD4+ and CD8+ CTL to melanoma cells was significantly inhibited by ICAM-1 mAb. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 secretion was induced in both CD4+ and CD8+ CTL after stimulation by melanoma cells. A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction performed on specific messenger RNA showed that both CD4+ and CD8+ CTL expressed IL-1, IL-2 and IL-4; CD4+ CTL also expressed interferon gamma (IFN). Both CTL phenotypes expressed receptors for IL-2 and IFN but only CD4+ CTL expressed the receptor for IL-4. Methods to augment CD4+ CTL growth were assessed using different combinations of cytokines. The combination of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN provided the optimal stimulation. Treatment of melanoma target cells with IL-4 and IFN enhanced CD4+ CTL recognition activity. CD4+ T cells are associated with antigen memory response and helper function, therefore activation of CD4+ CTL may be more beneficial with respect to long-term protective antimelanoma immunity.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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