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Biochemistry. 1994 Oct 18;33(41):12487-94.

Michael addition-type 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal adducts in modified low-density lipoproteins: markers for atherosclerosis.

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Laboratory of Food and Biodynamics, Nagoya University School of Agriculture, Japan.


It has been proposed that plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) undergoes oxidative modification before it can give rise to foam cells in atherosclerosis. Oxidation of LDL generates a variety of reactive aldehyde products including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), which may covalently attach to the LDL apolipoproteins. We here present direct evidence that HNE derivatization of LDL forms Michael addition-type adducts of HNE with histidine and lysine residues of apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB) and also demonstrate the utility of an antibody specific to the HNE adducts generated in the LDL treated with HNE or oxidatively modified by Cu2+ or cultured endothelial cells. HNE adducts present in the LDL that had been treated with HNE were attested to be Michael addition-type adducts on the basis of the fact that incubation of LDL with 1 mM HNE (2 h, 37 degrees C) resulted primarily in the formation of Michael addition-type HNE-histidine (39.9 mol/mol of LDL) and HNE-lysine (19.3 mol/mol of LDL) adducts. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)/immunoblot analysis of HNE-modified LDL demonstrated that these HNE adducts were detectable with the HNE-specific antibody affinity-purified with the Michael adduct (HNE-histidine) as a ligand. The following lines of evidence indicated the presence of Michael addition-type HNE adducts in the oxidatively modified LDL in vitro: (i) Amino acid analysis of LDL that had been treated with Cu2+ (24 h, 37 degrees C) demonstrated the presence of a Michael addition-type HNE-histidine adduct (7-9 mol/mol of LDL).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

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