Send to

Choose Destination
Lancet. 1994 Jul 23;344(8917):246-8.

Condom promotion, sexually transmitted diseases treatment, and declining incidence of HIV-1 infection in female Zairian sex workers.

Author information

Department of Infection and Immunity, WHO Collaborating Centre on AIDS, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.


The control of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV-1, among sex workers and their clients in urban areas in developing countries, is considered a valuable and cost-effective intervention to contain the spread of HIV-1. The effect of a programme of STD treatment combined with condom promotion on HIV-1 incidence has so far not been measured. During an intervention including condom promotion, as well as monthly sexually transmitted disease screening and treatment among 531 initially HIV-1 negative female sex workers in Kinshasa, Zaire, 70 became infected with HIV-1 (incidence of 8.0 per 100 women-years [wy]). A decline of HIV-1 incidence was observed over time, from 11.7/100 wy during the first 6 months, to 4.4/100 wy over the last 6 months, 3 years later (p = 0.003). Simultaneously, regular use of condoms with clients went up from 11% to 52% and 68%, after 6 and 36 months of intervention, respectively. Risk factors for HIV-1 seroconversion after multivariate analysis included irregular condom use (RR 1.6 [95% Cl 1.1-2.8]), gonorrhoea (RR 2.5 [1.1-6.4]), trichomoniasis (RR 1.7 [1.1-2.8]), and genital ulcer disease (RR 2.5 [1.1-6.4]), during the probable period of acquisition of HIV-1. In women who attended more than 90% of their clinic appointments, the HIV-1 incidence was 2.7/100 wy compared to 7.1, 20.3, and 44.1 per 100 wy among women who attended 76-90%, 50-75%, and less than 50% of the monthly appointments, respectively (p < 0.0001). These trends remained after controlling for reported condom use and number of clients. This study confirms earlier findings that STDs facilitate transmission of HIV-1 and shows that a clinic-based intervention consisting of STD care and condom promotion can result in a major decline of HIV-1 incidence among female sex workers.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center