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Am J Physiol. 1993 Oct;265(4 Pt 1):G699-703.

Origin of D-alanine present in urine of mutant mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase activity.

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Department of Microbiology, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Tochigi, Japan.


Urine of mutant ddY/DAO- mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase contained 13 times more D-alanine than that of normal ddY/DAO+ mice. Because D-alanine is a component of bacterial cell walls, the possibility that the urinary D-alanine came from intestinal bacteria was examined. In ddY/DAO- mice that were made germ free at birth and reared in a germ-free environment, the quantity of urinary D-alanine was found to be at a low level comparable to that of the normal mice. When these germ-free mice were made gnotobiotic by inoculation with gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacteroides vulgatus), the urinary D-alanine increased to a high level. When these gnotobiotic mice were further inoculated with gram-positive bacteria (Bifidobacterium longum and Eubacterium aerofaciens), the urinary D-alanine increased further. These results indicate that most of the urinary D-alanine of the conventionally reared ddY/DAO- mice is of gastrointestinal bacterial origin.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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