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J Biol Chem. 1995 Mar 10;270(10):5305-11.

Mutagenesis of vitamin K-dependent carboxylase demonstrates a carboxyl terminus-mediated interaction with vitamin K hydroquinone.

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Center for Hemostasis and Thrombosis Research, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.


The gamma-glutamyl carboxylase and vitamin K epoxidase activities of a series of mutants of bovine vitamin K-dependent carboxylase with progressively larger COOH-terminal deletions have been analyzed. The recombinant wild-type (residues 1-758) and mutant protein carboxylases, Cbx 711, Cbx 676, and Cbx 572, representing residues 1-711, 1-676, and 1-572, respectively, were expressed in baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells. Wild-type carboxylase had a Km for the substrate Phe-Leu-Glu-Glu-Leu (FLEEL) of 0.87 mM; the carboxylation of FLEEL was stimulated 2.5-fold by proPT18, the propeptide of prothrombin. Its Km for vitamin K hydroquinone was 23 microM and the specific epoxidase activity of the carboxylase was 938 pmol vitamin KO/30 min/pmol of carboxylase. Cbx 711, which was also stimulated by proPT18, had a Km for FLEEL, a Km for vitamin K hydroquinone, and a specific epoxidase activity that was comparable to the wild-type carboxylase. In contrast Cbx 572 lacked both carboxylase and epoxidase activities. Although Cbx 676 had a normal carboxylase active site in terms of the Km for FLEEL and its stimulation by proPT18, the Km for vitamin K hydroquinone was 540 microM, and the specific epoxidase activity was 97 pmol KO/30 min/pmol of Cbx 676. The catalytic efficiencies of Cbx 676 for glutamate carboxylation and vitamin K epoxidation were decreased 15- and 400-fold, respectively, from wild-type enzyme reflecting the requirement for formation of an activated vitamin K species for carboxylation to occur. These data indicate that the truncation of COOH-terminal segments of the carboxylase had no effect on FLEEL or propeptide recognition, but in the case of Cbx 676, selectively affected the interaction with vitamin K hydroquinone and the generation of epoxidase activity. These data suggest that a vitamin K epoxidase activity domain may reside near the COOH terminus while the carboxylase active site domain resides toward the NH2 terminus.

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