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J Med Microbiol. 1995 Mar;42(3):214-9.

Mechanisms of 4-quinolone resistance in quinolone-resistant and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Japan and China.

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Exploratory Research Laboratories 1, Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan.


Ninety-two and 33 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains were isolated in Japan and China respectively. They were categorised as ofloxacin-susceptible (MIC < 12.5 mg/L), moderately (MIC 12.5-25 mg/L) or highly (MIC > or = 50 mg/L) ofloxacin-resistant. 4-Quinolone concentrations required to inhibit purified DNA gyrase from the moderately and highly quinolone-resistant MRSA were at least 20 times higher than those required to inhibit the equivalent enzyme from quinolone-susceptible strains. Reconstitution assays demonstrated that the 4-quinolone-resistant MRSA had a mutation in subunit A of DNA gyrase. A portion of the gyrA gene from amino acids codons 40-115 was sequenced. Four moderately resistant and seven highly resistant MRSA contained a Ser-->Leu substitution at amino acid 84; one moderately and one highly resistant MRSA and one moderately resistant methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain contained a Glu-->Lys substitution at amino acid 88. Eight MRSA, including one quinolone-susceptible strain and one MSSA contained a silent mutation at amino acid 86. Uptake of ofloxacin in moderately resistant strains was almost the same in the presence or absence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), whereas in highly resistant strains, uptake increased when CCCP was added. Restriction fragment length analysis of the norA gene with the restriction endonuclease SfcI showed a mutation of nucleotide position 1085 in all MRSA strains tested except for one highly quinolone-resistant strain. Thus the mechanisms of 4-quinolone-resistance in these MRSA isolates involved alterations in both DNA gyrase and antimicrobial uptake and efflux.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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