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J Urol. 1995 Mar;153(3 Pt 1):604-8.

Management of hemorrhage after percutaneous renal surgery.

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Department of Urology, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, New York.


Renal hemorrhage is the most worrisome complication of percutaneous renal surgery. Between August 1983 and August 1992 we performed 2,200 percutaneous renal operations, with 17 patients (0.8%) requiring angiography and embolization for significant bleeding uncontrolled by the usual measures. The angiographic diagnoses were arteriovenous fistula in 7 patients, pseudoaneurysm in 4, fistula and pseudoaneurysm in 2, and lacerated renal vessels in 2. A total of 15 patients required no further treatment after embolization, while 2 underwent either partial nephrectomy or open exploration. No risk factors for hemorrhage could be identified. We recommend angiography and embolization under 3 conditions; 1) in the immediate postoperative period when clamping of the nephrostomy tube and a tamponade balloon catheter fail to control hemorrhage (24% of our series), 2) in the early postoperative period (2 to 7 days) when the patient requires 3 or 4 units of blood after replacement of the initial blood loss (41% of our series) and 3) for sudden hemorrhage more than 7 days postoperatively (35% of our series).

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