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Autoimmunity. 1994;18(3):205-11.

Anti-nuclear, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic and anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies in HIV-infected individuals.

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1
University Department of Medicine, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.

Abstract

Many autoantibodies have been described in HIV-infected individuals. We have examined the incidence, associations and prognostic significance of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies in individuals with HIV infections. One hundred and five patients, with asymptomatic infections (n = 37), AIDS-related complex (n = 32) or AIDS (n = 36) were studied. Plasma from 24 of these (23%) were positive for ANA: most demonstrated speckled fluorescence (n = 21) and were of low titre (1+ in 18). ANCA were demonstrated by IIF in 18 individuals (17%) and all fluorescent patterns were seen; 6 of these plasma were also positive in the ELISAs for antibodies to proteinase 3, myeloperoxidase or elastase. Thirteen plasma were positive for ANCA in the neutrophil cytoplasm ELISA; 10 of these were also positive in the specific ELISAs. A total of 30 plasma bound to proteinase 3, myeloperoxidase or elastase in specific ELISAs, in 6 cases with 2 specificities. Finally, 18 plasma (17%) contained anti-GBM antibodies by ELISA, but none of 4 plasma tested in inhibition assays was specific. ANA, ANCA and anti-GBM antibodies were not uncommon in HIV-infected individuals but the presence of these antibodies was not associated with the clinical manifestations of the corresponding autoimmune diseases. In addition, there was no correlation between the demonstration of these antibodies and the immunological status of the individual (apart from a correlation between CD4 counts less than 400/microliters with anti-GBM antibodies), the presence of an opportunistic infection, the development of malignancy or reduced survival. Some of these antibodies may arise from polyclonal activation, or be due to "sticky" serum since we have shown that the presence of anti-GBM antibodies correlated with the demonstration of ANCA by ELISA. These antibodies are not more common in hypergammaglobulinemic plasma but some may be due to heat-treatment of the plasma. The clinician caring for HIV-infected individuals needs to be aware of these "false-positive" antibody results.

PMID:
7858105
DOI:
10.3109/08916939409007997
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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