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J Biol Chem. 1995 Feb 17;270(7):2906-13.

Oxidation of bromide by the human leukocyte enzymes myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase. Formation of bromamines.

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Dental Research Center, University of Tennessee, Memphis 38163.


Myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase catalyzed the oxidation of bromide ion by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and produced a brominating agent that reacted with amine compounds to form bromamines, which are long-lived oxidants containing covalent nitrogen-bromine bonds. Results were consistent with oxidation of bromide to an equilibrium mixture of hypobromous acid (HOBr) and hypobromite ion (OBr-). Up to 1 mol of bromamine was produced per mole of H2O2, indicating that bromamine formation prevented the reduction of HOBr/OBr- by H2O2 and the loss of oxidizing and brominating activity. Bromamines differed from HOBr/OBr- in that bromamines reacted slowly with H2O2, were not reduced by dimethyl sulfoxide, and had absorption spectra similar to those of chloramines, but shifted 36 nm toward higher wavelengths. Mono- and di-bromo derivatives (RNHBr and RNHBr2) of the beta-amino acid taurine were relatively stable with half-lives of 70 and 16 h at pH 7, 37 degrees C. The mono-bromamine was obtained with a 200-fold excess of amine over the amount of HOBr/OBr- and the di-bromamine at a 2:1 ratio of HOBr/OBr- to the amine. In the presence of physiologic levels of both bromide (0.1 mM) and chloride (0.1 M), myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase produced mixtures of bromamines and chloramines containing 6 +/- 4% and 88 +/- 4% bromamine. In contrast, only the mono-chloramine derivative (RNHCl) was formed when a mixture of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hypochlorite ion (OCl-) was added to solutions containing bromide and excess amine. The rapid formation of the chloramine prevented the oxidation of bromide by HOCl/OCl-, and the chloramine did not react with bromide within 1 h at 37 degrees C. The results indicate that when enzyme-catalyzed bromide or chloride oxidation took place in the presence of an amine compound at 10 mM or higher, bromamines were not produced in secondary reactions such as the oxidation of bromide by HOCl/OCl- and the exchange of bromide with chlorine atoms of chloramines. Therefore, the amount of bromamine produced by myeloperoxidase or eosinophil peroxidase was equal to the amount of bromide oxidized by the enzyme. Bromide was preferred over chloride as the substrate for both enzymes.

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