Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Risk Anal. 1994 Dec;14(6):1049-56.

Derivation of a target level of lead in soil at residential sites corresponding to a de minimis contribution to blood lead concentration.

Author information

Division of Science and Research, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy, Trenton 08625.


Inability to define either a clear toxicologic threshold or a stochastic all-or-nothing (cancer-type) response model for the noncarcinogenic effects of lead (Pb) in young children has posed difficulties for derivation of risk-based target levels of Pb in residential soil. Approaches based on empirical relationships between Pb levels in blood (PbB) and Pb in soil suffer from inability to specify the numerous variables which mediate between these two quantities. Approaches based on achieving a toxicologically de minimis target PbB level (e.g., 10 micrograms/dl) are subject to large uncertainty in estimating the distribution of existing PbB levels in a specific exposed population and in estimating the relative contribution from nonsoil sources of Pb. The multisource contribution to the distribution of PbB makes this approach unsuited for determination of a target Pb level in a single medium. An alternative approach is presented based on achieving a de minimis contribution to PbB (delta PbB) from soil. Contributions to Pb exposure from outdoor soil and indoor soil-derived dust (ISDD) are modeled and appropriate values are suggested for input parameters. This analysis predicts that chronic exposure of young children to 200 micrograms Pb/g (ppm) in residential soil will result in a delta PbB of 2 micrograms Pb/dl blood. This concentration of Pb in soil may provide an appropriate target level for residential soil when other significant sources of Pb exposure are present. In other cases, this approach can be used to predict a soil concentration of Pb corresponding to an appropriate non-de minimis delta PbB.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley
    Loading ...
    Support Center