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Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1994;20(4):181-6.

Urinary biomarkers and nephrotoxicity.

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Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 9720-2940.


Biomarkers represent measurable changes in biologic systems or samples which correlate with an organism's altered biochemical or cellular function. For the kidney urine is the usual body fluid sampled. The principle processes which are evaluated are filtration/elimination and reabsorption/secretion. Proteins, either abnormal in type or amount, and enzymes have dominated interest in this field for many years. However, application of monoclonal antibody techniques, along with an understanding of the role of cytokiness, growth factors, collagen matrix and lipid mediators have rapidly expanded the field of new candidates for urinary biomarkers.

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