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J Med Vet Mycol. 1994;32(5):331-41.

Phylogeny of dermatophytes and dimorphic fungi based on large subunit ribosomal RNA sequence comparisons.

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1
Institut Pasteur, Unité de Mycologie, Paris, France.

Abstract

The phylogeny of dermatophytes and dimorphic fungi was considered using the large-subunit of ribosomal RNA (25S rRNA). Aligned sequences of 595 nucleotides covering the two most divergent domains D1 and D2, permitted a comparison of phylogenetic relationships at different levels. The dimorphic species (Onygenaceae) were significantly separated from dermatophytes (Arthrodermataceae) and from a third group including geophilic or very weakly pathogenic species (Onygenaceae and Gymnoascaceae). On a species level, the varietal status of Histoplasma duboisii and Histoplasma farciminosum, as close relations of Histoplasma capsulatum, was confirmed. The dimorphic fungus Emmonsia parva, in spite of a completely different parasitic form (adiaspores instead of yeast-like cells), clustered with Blastomyces dermatitidis which has a perfect form resembling that of H. capsulatum. From our data, teleomorphs of E. parva, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and H. farciminosum, three dimorphic fungi known only under their anamorphic states, should belong to the family of Onygenaceae and the genus Ajellomyces. Among Arthrodermataceae, and family containing the most keratinophilic species, it was not possible to establish a clear hierarchy of species. Only Ctenomyces serratus, the species adapted to degrade keratin of feathers, Trichophyton ajelloi and Trichophyton terrestre were significantly separated. The speciation of true dermatophytes resulted most likely from a very recent evolution by adaptation to parasitism. Among species used as outgroups, the two emerging pathogens Pseudallescheria boydii (Scedosporium apiospermum) and Scedosporium prolificans (Scedosporium inflatum) were shown to be closely related to each other.

PMID:
7844699
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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