Send to

Choose Destination
Vis Neurosci. 1994 Nov-Dec;11(6):1193-203.

Glutamate-, GABA-, and GAD-immunoreactivities co-localize in bipolar cells of tiger salamander retina.

Author information

Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University at Stony Brook, NY 11794-5230.


The presence of inhibitory bipolar cells in salamander retina was investigated by a comparative analysis of the distribution of glutamate- and GABA-immunoreactivities (GLU-IR; GABA-IR) using a postembedding immunocytochemical method. GLU-IR was found in virtually all photoreceptors, bipolar cells and ganglion cells, neuronal elements that transfer information vertically through the retina. GLU-IR also was found in numerous amacrine cells in the mid and proximal inner nuclear layer as well as in the cytoplasm of horizontal cells, while the nucleus of horizontal cells was either lightly labeled or not labeled at all. GLU-IR was found in the outer plexiform layer and intensely in the inner plexiform layer, in which there was no apparent sublamination. Forty-seven percent of Type IB bipolar cells in the distal inner nuclear layer and 13% of the displaced bipolar cells were GABA-IR. All bipolar cells were also GLU-IR, indicating that GABA-IR bipolar cells were a subset of GLU-IR bipolar cells rather than a separate population. About 12% of the Type IB bipolar cells were moderately GABA-IR and likely comprised a GABAergic subtype. GLU-IR levels in the presumed GABAergic bipolar cells were higher than in other purely GLU-IR bipolar cells suggesting that these GABA-IR bipolar cells are glutamatergic as well. All of the displaced bipolar cells were only lightly GABA-IR, indicating that displaced bipolar cells comprise a more homogeneous class of glutamatergic cell than orthotopic bipolar cells. GAD-IR co-localized with GABA-IR in orthotopic but not displaced bipolar cells, further supporting the idea that some orthotopic bipolar cells are GABAergic. A small proportion of bipolar cells in salamander retina contain relatively high levels of both GABA and glutamate. Co-release of these substances by bipolar cells could contribute to the "push-pull" modulation of ganglion cell responses.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center