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Gene. 1995 Jan 23;152(2):173-9.

An ATF/CREB-binding site is essential for cell-specific and inducible transcription of the murine MIP-1 beta cytokine gene.

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ICRF Cancer Medicine Research Unit, St. James's University Hospital, Leeds, UK.


The murine macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta mRNA (MIP-1 beta) is rapidly and transiently induced in macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), serum or cycloheximide. Functional studies of the MIP-1 beta proximal promoter indicate that it is cell-specific, and serum- and LPS-responsive in macrophages. A 76-bp proximal promoter sequence (-51 to -127 bp) confers cell-specific and LPS-inducible activity when placed upstream from a heterologous promoter in both orientations. One essential cis-regulatory element within the enhancer-like sequence is an activating transcription factor/cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (ATF/CREB)-binding site, although the promoter is not cAMP responsive. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and mutational analyses suggest that the promoter site is bound by nuclear protein complexes containing cAMP-independent members of the ATF/CREB family of proteins and c-Jun, and are functionally distinct from the AP1-related TPA-response element (TRE) binding activity.

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