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J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1994 Sep 23;659(1-2):19-50.

Solid-phase derivatization reactions for biomedical liquid chromatography.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115.


Polymeric reagents have been developed for performing off- and on-line derivatizations of numerous organic analytes in HPLC-detection modes. Such reagents utilize ionic or covalent attachment of labile tags that possess specific detector enhancement properties: ultraviolet, electrochemical, fluorescence, and so forth. Specific synthetic procedures have evolved to generate various linkages of the tag to the underlying, polymeric support, usually involving activated ester connections (leashes). The polymer itself may play a number of roles in the nature of the overall reactions, such as hydrophobic-hydrophillic exclusion, pore size restriction, stabilization of the attachment leashes, and protection of the tags from hydrolysis in aqueous media. The basic, underlying chemistry of polymeric reagents has evolved to the point where it is possible to engineer the polymer support itself, the attachment leash, and the various tags that are then transferred to the analyte molecules. These procedures have now reached the stage of commercialization and practical applicability for real-world drugs and bioorganics in complex biofluid type samples. Polymer supported reagents can now be used for direct injection of biofluids with solid-phase (hydrophobic) extraction of the analytes of interest, followed by sample cleanup, derivatization, elution onto the HPLC column, peak compression, gradient HPLC elution, multiple detection, and final data interpretation with quantitation. This review summarizes much or most of what has been described in the scientific literature over the past decade in the various areas where polymeric reagents are being used for derivatization in HPLC and in capillary electrophoresis as well.

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