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Cancer Biother. 1994 Fall;9(3):225-35.

Induction of cytokines and cytotoxicity against tumor cells by Newcastle disease virus.

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Division of Hematology and Oncology, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, University Medical Center, Germany.


The use of NDV as biological adjuvant in vaccines against human cancer is still actual in several clinical treatment protocols. In this study, we have investigated in vitro-effects of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain 73-T on isolated mononuclear blood cells and cultured tumor cells. Cellular cytotoxicity of PBMC freshly isolated from healthy donors against tumor cells was enhanced significantly (p < 0.01) after coincubation of NDV with effector cells. NDV failed to enhance cytotoxicity of effector cells when PBMC were stimulated three days with 500 IU recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) per ml prior to coincubation with the virus. No significant enhancement of cellular lysis was seen when only target cells were coincubated with NDV. As shown by depletion of various lymphocyte subsets, NK cells were the predominant mediator of lysis. Enhancement of cytotoxicity correlated with the induction of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in PBMC by NDV. NDV also induced high amounts of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in PBMC. Induction of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was weak. A direct cytopathic effect (CPE) of NDV on different target cells was detected by colorimetric measurement of metabolic cell activity. The human tumor cell lines A-498, A-704, Caki-1, Caki-2, and K-562 and the fibroblast line MRC-5 showed progressive cellular destruction 48 h after infection with NDV, whereas PBMC and Daudi cells remained unaffected during the observation period. The nontransformed monkey kidney cell line CV-1 and the transformed monkey kidney cell line COS-1 were both lysed by NDV with marginal difference in time course of CPE. Our results indicate a reasonable potential of pleiotropic modifications of the immune response against tumors by NDV.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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