Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Infect Immun. 1995 Jan;63(1):168-74.

Monophosphoryl lipid A behaves as a T-cell-independent type 1 carrier for hapten-specific antibody responses in mice.

Author information

  • 1Ribi ImmunoChem Research, Inc., Hamilton, Montana 59840.


It is known that the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria, in addition to being a potent adjuvant, is an effective carrier for covalently associated haptens. However, the toxic nature of most forms of LPS precludes their use as adjuvants or carriers for human vaccines. 4'-Monophosphoryl lipid A (MLA), a derivative of LPS with attenuated toxicity, is currently being tested in humans as an immunological adjuvant. In this study, MLA was tested for its ability to function as a carrier for a small hapten, the trinitrophenyl group (TNP). MLA was first modified by addition of 6-aminocaproic acid to the 6' position of the disaccharide backbone (Cap-MLA). TNP was then attached to Cap-MLA via the free amino group, yielding TNP-Cap-MLA. Immunization of normal mice with TNP-Cap-MLA resulted in high-titer anti-TNP responses of immunoglobulin M and all immunoglobulin G subclasses. Furthermore MLA, like other T-cell-independent type 1 (TI-1) carriers, induced responses in athymic and X-linked immunodeficient mice. In all cases, immunization with either MLA alone or TNP-Cap plus MLA failed to induce measurable anti-TNP antibodies of any isotype, indicating that covalent association of MLA and hapten was necessary for MLA's carrier activity to be manifested. These properties of MLA make it a potential candidate as a carrier for vaccine subunit components, such as small peptides, especially for situations in which T-cell help is impaired, as occurs following human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center