Send to

Choose Destination
Nucleic Acids Res. 1994 Nov 25;22(23):4914-21.

Different members of the Sp1 multigene family exert opposite transcriptional regulation of the long terminal repeat of HIV-1.

Author information

Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia Generale e Molecolare, Università Federico II, Naples, Italy.


Recently, a family of transcription factors structurally related to Sp1 has been described; thus, more than one activator may bind to the GC boxes present in a number of viral and cellular promoters. We have compared the transactivation potentials of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) promoter. The long terminal repeat (LTR) of HIV-1 contains three binding sites for the transcription factor Sp1 (GC boxes) which are involved in both basal and Tat-mediated transcriptional activation. Moreover, a cooperative interaction between NF-kappa B and Sp1 is required for HIV enhancer activation. We now demonstrate that Sp4 is an activator, while the Sp3 protein represses basal expression of HIV promoter. Remarkably, we found that over-expression of the transcription factor Sp3 was able to suppress Tat-mediated transactivation. These inhibitory effects of Sp3 correlate with its DNA binding activity, suggesting that Sp3 inhibition involves competition with Sp1 for occupancy of the GC boxes. Next, we have analyzed the role of different Sp1-related proteins in the stimulation of HIV-1 promoter in response to mitogens. We found that the binding of NF-kappa B is not by itself sufficient to induce HIV gene expression. Instead, an interaction between NF-kappa B and the trans-acting domain (A domain) of Sp1 bound to an adjacent site must occur. We found that the cooperative interaction between NF-kappa B and Sp1 is highly specific, since neither Sp3 nor Sp4 is capable of cooperating with NF-kappa B.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center