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Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1994 Oct;78(4):494-502.

Pathogenesis of induced rat periapical lesions.

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1
Department of Cytokine Biology, Forsyth Dental Center, Kanagawa Dental College, and Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Mass.

Abstract

Studies of the mechanisms of pathogenesis of periapical lesions were undertaken using a rat model of surgical pulp exposure. In this model, periapical lesions develop rapidly between days 0 and 15 (active phase) and more slowly thereafter (chronic phase). A Gram-negative anaerobic flora, similar to that seen in human beings, are quickly established. Lesions contain a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of T cells, neutrophils, B cells, macrophages, and plasma cells. Helper T cells predominate during the active phase, whereas suppressor T cells are more frequent in the chronic phase. Extracts of periapical lesions contain bone-resorbing activity, the highest levels of which are present when lesions are actively expanding. Most bone-resorbing activity is mediated by the cytokine interleukin-1 alpha, as determined by biochemical criteria and antibody neutralization studies. Prostaglandin2 accounts for 10% to 15% of resorptive activity. Cells that express interleukin-1 alpha were identified in pulp beginning on day 2 after exposure and in periapical tissue beginning on day 7, as determined by in situ hybridization and immunostaining. Macrophages, fibroblasts, neutrophils, and osteoclasts were positive for interleukin-1 alpha mRNA and protein. Cells that express tumor necrosis factor alpha were also detected, whereas cells expressing interleukin-1 beta or tumor necrosis factor beta were absent. Finally, periapical bone destruction was inhibited by 60% by treatment with interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. These studies establish a key role for interleukin-1 alpha in the pathogenesis of periapical lesions in the rat model.

PMID:
7800381
DOI:
10.1016/0030-4220(94)90044-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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