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Blood. 1976 Jul;48(1):63-70.

Severe aplastic anemia: a prospective study of the effect of early marrow transplantation on acute mortality.


A prospective randomized trial of therapy for severe aplastic anemia was designed to compare early bone marrow transplantation with conventional treatments. All patients with a sibling matched at the major histocompatibility region were transplanted. Transplantation was performed with 17-100 (median 33) days of original diagnosis. Conventional treatments included transfusion support with or without androgens. Twenty-four of 36 patients intered on the transplant arm are alive after 4-20 (median 9) mo with full marrow reconstitution. Only two are limited by chronic graft-versus-host disease. In contrast only 12 of 31 conventionally treated patients are alive. Six of these survivors have improved, five incompletely. The 19 nontransplant deaths have occurred within 1-11 (median 3) mo of diagnosis. Compared to nontransplant regimens, early transplantation more effectively restores normal marrow function and decreases the acute mortality of severe marrow aplasia (p = 0.006). Pending longer follow-up, early marrow transplantation appears to be the most effective available treatment for severe aplastic anemia.

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