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J Clin Psychol. 1995 Mar;51(2):205-14.

PSM-R: Revised Optimism-Pessimism Scale for the MMPI-2 and MMPI.

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Section of Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.


The Revised Optimism-Pessimism (PSM-R) scale was developed for use with either the MMPI-2 or the MMPI. The scale measures explanatory style on a continuum from optimistic to pessimistic by using 263 MMPI items of the original 298-item Optimism-Pessimism (PSM) scale. These 263 items are common to both the MMPI-2 and MMPI. PSM-R norms are based on a random sample of 1,408 normal adults who also were used for developing norms for the original PSM scale. Reliability estimates (.93 for men; .94 for women) indicate that the PSM-R scale is as accurate as the original PSM scale.

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