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Virology. 1995 Jun 20;210(1):152-9.

An arbovirus cline across the northern hemisphere.

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NERC Institute of Virology and Environmental Microbiology, Oxford, United Kingdom.


The mode and tempo of arbovirus evolution and dispersal can help to explain the dynamics of pandemics, viral outbreaks, and emerging viruses. By comparing nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of their envelope proteins, we describe the continuous distribution of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) complex viruses, the most important flaviviruses in Europe, across major geographical areas and the conditions under which mutations occur. The analyses reveal a correlation between the geographical and genetic distances of these viruses. The arthropod host appears to be a key factor for the formation and maintenance of this cline by constraining TBE dispersal and evolution. This is also illustrated by comparisons with mosquito-borne flaviviruses.

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