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Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Jul;86(1):112-8.

Gender influences on earnings of obstetrician-gynecologists.

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American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Washington, DC, USA.



To test the hypothesis that the observed difference in earnings between male and female obstetrician-gynecologists could be explained by variations in productivity and human capital.


Data from a 1991 national survey of ACOG Fellows were used to provide a descriptive analysis of male and female obstetrician-gynecologists' demographic characteristics, net income, experience, practice characteristics, workload, and practice activities. Variables found to have a significant impact on net income or to vary significantly by sex were included in a multiple regression analysis.


Twenty-one percent of the 1286 survey respondents were female obstetrician-gynecologists. Women were almost twice as likely as men to be in salaried positions (P < .001) and more than twice as likely to have less than 10 years of experience (P < .001). Women reported fewer annual patient-contact hours (P < .05) and performed fewer than half as many hysterectomies (P < .001). Average annual earnings for women were 71% of men's annual net income (P < .001). The multivariate regression analysis found that male-female differences in the factors included in the analysis (ie, workload, experience, practice type) resulted in an 18.7% male-female income gap. The analysis also revealed an income gap of 14.2% that was not accounted for by differences in the objective factors included in the model.


More than half of the overall male-female income gap was explained by differences in personal and practice characteristics. However, female obstetrician-gynecologists earned 14.2% less than men, after controlling for variations in productivity and human capital.

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