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J Toxicol Environ Health. 1995 Jun;45(2):127-43.

A multidisciplinary approach to toxicological screening: I. Systemic toxicity.

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Health Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA.


The toxicity of 10 chemicals, including pesticides (carbaryl, chlordane, heptachlor, and triadimefon), solvents (carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene), and industrial chemicals [diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) and phenol] was examined in the liver, kidneys, spleen, thymus, and adrenals of female F344 rats after 1 or 14 d of oral dosing. For each chemical, 4 doses were based on fractions of the acute LD50, which was estimated using an abbreviated (up-and-down) method. A multivariate analysis (MANOVA) was conducted for each organ using selected measures of toxicity. A post hoc contrast analysis was also conducted for significant MANOVA results in order to determine effective and ineffective doses. A single dose of heptachlor resulted in necrotic lymphocytes in the spleen and thymus at doses > or = 23 mg/kg. Triadimefon altered liver and spleen weights; this effect has not been described previously. Dichloromethane (> or = 337 mg/kg/d for 14 d) increased the incidence of necrosis of individual centrilobular hepatocytes. Trichloroethylene-induced hepatotoxicity was obtained at doses an order of magnitude lower than those reported in the literature. Acute DEHP (150 mg/kg) increased mitotic figures in hepatocytes, which were replaced by hepatocellular cytomegaly after 14 d of dosing at the same level. Following phenol exposure, there was an increased incidence in hepatocellular necrosis at 1 d, and an increased incidence of kidney lesions at 1 and 14 d; these findings were considered to be the result of vascular stasis. Overall, the algorithm used to select doses was effective for both 1- or 14-d dosing regimens. For all chemicals except carbon tetrachloride, the lowest effective dose for systemic toxicity was within the range of 3-56% of the LD50 for acute dosing, and 1-30% of the LD50 for repeated administration.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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