Send to

Choose Destination
J Med Chem. 1995 May 26;38(11):1990-7.

Structure-activity relationships of milrinone analogues determined in vitro in a rabbit heart membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase model.

Author information

Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, Inc., Buffalo, New York 14203, USA.


The cardiac activity of a series of analogues of the positive inotropic bipyridines amrinone (5-amino-[3,4'-bipyridin]-6(1H)-one) and milrinone (2-methyl-5-cyano-[3,4'-bipyridin]-6(1H)-one) was evaluated in vitro in a rabbit myocardial membrane Mg(2+)-dependent, Ca(2+)-stimulable adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) model and structure-activity relationships were compared for nine closely related derivatives. In the present studies, a 5-bromo analogue of milrinone stimulated myocardial membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase significantly (10(-7) M; P < 0.001 vs control, with 67% of the activity of milrinone), whereas a 2'-methyl-2H-milrinone derivative was inactive. Although amrinone was inactive in this assay, its 2-methyl analogue was stimulatory. However, analogues lacking a 2-substituent (with or without a 5-cyano group) or with the 3-N position blocked by a methyl group did not stimulate myocardial membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. Structural data for these bipyridines show that those with either a 2- or 2'-methyl substituent have a twist conformation, whereas those without are nearly planar. Activity data reveal that those bipyridines with a nonplanar conformation are more active in the Ca(2+)-ATPase assay. Further study of milrinone analogues with a 2'-methyl substituent shows that even though the effect on the twist angle is equivalent to that of 2-methyl substitution, these analogues are less potent. Data for this series reveal that the prerequisites for Ca(2+)-ATPase stimulation include not only a 2-methyl to maintain a twist conformation but also a free 3-N position and a 5-substituent. This model for optimal activity in the myocardial membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase system differs from those proposed for phosphodiesterase enzyme receptor recognition only in the requirement for a nonplanar molecule. We have previously shown that milrinone, but not amrinone, shares structural homology with thyroxine and was able to stimulate myocardial membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in a manner similar to the thyroid hormone. Additionally, milrinone, but not amrinone, was an effective competitor for thyroxine binding to the serum transport protein transthyretin. Analysis of the milrinone-transthyretin crystal complex confirms the structural homology between milrinone and thyroid hormone which is not shared by amrinone. Modeling studies of the binding interactions of milrinone analogues indicate that the 2-desmethylmilrinone analogue, the most inhibitory analogue, lacks the hydrophobic contacts present in milrinone in its transthyretin-bound complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center