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J Clin Invest. 1995 Jun;95(6):2926-37.

Protein dynamics in whole body and in splanchnic and leg tissues in type I diabetic patients.

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1
University of Vermont College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Burlington 05405, USA.

Abstract

To elucidate the mechanism of insulin's anticatabolic effect in humans, protein dynamics were evaluated in the whole-body, splanchnic, and leg tissues in six C-peptide-negative type I diabetic male patients in the insulin-deprived and insulin-treated states using two separate amino acid models (leucine and phenylalanine). L-(1-13C,15N)leucine, L-(ring-2H5)phenylalanine, and L-(ring-2H2) tyrosine were infused intravenously, and isotopic enrichments of [1-13C,15N]-leucine, (13C)leucine, (13C)ketoisocaproate, (2H5)phenylalanine, [2H4]tyrosine, (2H2)tyrosine, and 13CO2 were measured in arterial, hepatic vein, and femoral vein samples. Whole-body leucine flux, phenylalanine flux, and tyrosine flux were decreased (< 0.01) by insulin treatment, indicating an inhibition of protein breakdown. Moreover, insulin decreased (< 0.05) the rates of leucine oxidation and leucine transamination (P < 0.01), but the percent rate of ketoisocaproate oxidation was increased by insulin (P < 0.01). Insulin also reduced (< 0.01) whole-body protein synthesis estimated from both the leucine model (nonoxidative leucine disposal) and the phenylalanine model (disposal of phenylalanine not accounted by its conversion to tyrosine). Regional studies demonstrated that changes in whole body protein breakdown are accounted for by changes in both splanchnic and leg tissues. The changes in whole-body protein synthesis were not associated with changes in skeletal muscle (leg) protein synthesis but could be accounted for by the splanchnic region. We conclude that though insulin decreases whole-body protein breakdown in patients with type I diabetes by inhibition of protein breakdown in splanchnic and leg tissues, it selectively decreases protein synthesis in splanchnic tissues, which accounted for the observed decrease in whole-body protein synthesis. Insulin also augmented anabolism by decreasing leucine transamination.

PMID:
7769135
PMCID:
PMC295981
DOI:
10.1172/JCI118000
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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