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J Cell Biochem. 1995 Mar;57(3):479-87.

In vivo protein-DNA interactions at the c-jun promoter in quiescent and serum-stimulated fibroblasts.

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Department of Biology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010, USA.


c-Jun is an important component in the regulation of cell proliferation. As a member of the early response gene family, c-jun is induced within minutes in the presence of mitogenic agents such as serum growth factors. Using in vivo footprinting, we have analyzed protein-DNA interactions at the c-jun promoter in human fibroblasts subjected to growth arrest and serum stimulation. We located seven footprints upstream of the transcription initiation site. Protein-DNA interactions were detected at two AP-1-like sequences, A CCAAT box, an SP-1 sequence, an NF-jun sequence, a putative RSRF (related to serum response factor) binding site, and a sequence bound by an unknown factor. All of these binding sites were occupied in serum-starved cells, and no additional protein-DNA interactions were detected upon serum stimulation. Evidence from this study supports a model in which expression of the c-jun gene is mediated by phosphorylation events taking place on the transactivation domains of promoter-bound transcriptional activators.

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