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Int J Cancer. 1995 May 29;61(5):601-5.

International renal-cell cancer study. IV. Occupation.

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Division of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA.


The relationship between renal-cell cancer (RCC) and occupation was investigated in an international multicenter population-based case-control study. Study centers in Australia, Denmark, Germany, Sweden and the United States interviewed 1732 incident RCC cases and 2309 controls. Significant associations were found with employment in the blast-furnace or the coke-oven industry [relative risk (RR), 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.7], the iron and steel industry (RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.2) and exposure to asbestos (RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8), cadmium (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.9), dry-cleaning solvents (RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7), gasoline (RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0) and other petroleum products (RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.1). Asbestos, petroleum products and dry-cleaning solvents appear to merit further investigation, in view of the relationship between risk and duration of employment or exposure and after adjustment for confounding. There was a negative association between RCC and education, but it was not consistent across all centers. Overall, the results of our multicenter case-control study suggest that occupation may be more important in the etiology of RCC than indicated by earlier studies.

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