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Dent Mater. 1994 Mar;10(2):78-82.

Long-term mechanical properties of glass ionomers.

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3M Dental Products Division, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000, USA.



Several methacrylate/glass ionomer hybrid materials are now available for clinical use as restorative filling materials. However, the long-term resistance of these materials to physical degradation in the humid oral condition is not known. The objective of this investigation was to determine the mechanical properties, e.g., ultimate compressive strength and diametral tensile strength, of several glass ionomer materials as a function of time after aging in water at oral temperature.


Eight glass ionomer filling materials indicated for restorative or core build-up applications were studied. Three conventional glass ionomers, two metal-containing conventional glass ionomers and three methacrylate-modified systems were included in the study. Cured specimens of each were aged in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 h, 1 wk, 4 wk, 12 wk, 24 wk and 52 wk.


Like the conventional glass ionomers, the methacrylate-modified glass ionomers of this study, with one exception, did not exhibit a decrease in compressive strength, modulus and diametral tensile strength as a result of prolonged storage in water at oral temperature. Some differences among the various groups were apparent. The compressive strengths of the conventional glass ionomers were lower than the methacrylate-modified system, except for one material, Fuji II (GC Dental Corp.), of the former group. A significant difference in the compressive strength was seen between the encapsulated and hand-mixed versions of the same commercial brand product. The compressive modulus was higher and the diametral tensile strength was lower for the conventional systems indicating that, as a group, these materials are more brittle than the methacrylate-modified hybrid ionomers. With the exception of VariGlass VLC (L.D. Caulk), most of the materials studied showed little decrease in mechanical properties after aging in water for 52 wk.


These materials could, therefore, be indicated for use in applications where they are in contact with oral fluids under physiological conditions.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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