Send to

Choose Destination
Am Heart J. 1995 Jun;129(6):1133-41.

Hemodynamic importance of preserving the normal sequence of ventricular activation in permanent cardiac pacing.

Author information

Department of Cardiology, Hotel Dieu/Centre Hospitalier, Rennes, France.


Pacing the right ventricle in the apex profoundly modifies the sequence of activation and thus the sequence of contraction and relaxation of the left ventricle. To evaluate the relative importance of preserving normal ventricular activation sequence and optimal atrioventricular (AV) synchrony in permanent pacing, we compared the effects of three pacing modes: AAI, preserving both normal AV synchrony and normal activation sequence; DDD, with complete ventricular capture that preserves only AV synchrony; and VVI, disrupting both, at rest and during exercise. Hemodynamic and radionuclide studies were performed in 11 patients who had normal intrinsic conduction and who were implanted on a long-term basis with a DDDR pacemaker for isolated sinus node dysfunction. AAI versus DDD and VVI significantly increased cardiac output at rest (6.6 +/- 1.3 L/min vs 6 +/- 0.9 L/min vs 5 +/- 1 L/min; p < 0.01) and during exercise (13.5 +/- 2 L/min vs 12.1 +/- 2.2 L/min vs 14.4 +/- 2.1 L/min; p < 0.01). Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was lowest with AAI (15.4 +/- 4.5 mm Hg), with an average reduction of 17% compared with DDD (19.6 +/- 5 mm Hg; p < 0.01) and of 30% compared with VVI (25.8 +/- 7 mm Hg; p < 0.01) during exercise. Identical benefits were observed for all other hemodynamic parameters: right atrial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, left ventricular (LV) stroke work index, and systemic vascular resistances. LV ejection fraction was significantly higher in AAI than in DDD at rest (61% vs 58%, respectively; p < 0.05) and during exercise (65% vs 60%, respectively; p < 0.05). This improvement in LV systolic function resulted principally from the increase in septal ejection fraction. LV filling also was improved in AAI as demonstrated by a significant increase in peak filling rate at rest and during exercise. These data show the importance of preserving, whenever possible, not only normal AV synchrony but also normal ventricular activation sequence in permanent cardiac pacing.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center