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Physiol Behav. 1995 Mar;57(3):461-8.

Effects of physical and chemical characteristics of food on specific and general satiety.

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Department of Food Science and Technology, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy.


Two high-energy-dense and two low-energy-dense Italian dishes were employed to study the effects of chemical and physical characteristics of foods on satiety. The specific satiety was firstly investigated. Then the satiating efficiency was evaluated when each dish was divided into two calorie levels (preloads) before an ad lib meal. Our results suggest that specific satiety differs, depending on the food itself rather than on energy intake. More calories were ingested with the high-energy-dense foods. The Satiating Efficiency Index (SEI) was calculated: fruit salad was the most satiating (SEI = 3.7), followed by mixed boiled vegetables (SEI = 2.4), meat balls (SEI = 1.0), and baked macaroni (SEI = 0.4). Among the variables considered, energy density, volume, protein, and firmness were the most effective in inducing satiety. In conclusion, the consumption of an adequate amount of low-energy-dense foods, high in firmness, as a first course of a meal, can help to decrease short-term intake.

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