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J Neurosci Methods. 1995 Feb;56(2):115-23.

The immunocytochemical detection of amino-acid neurotransmitters in paraformaldehyde-fixed tissues.

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Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.


In this study, we show that specific antibodies can be raised against paraformaldehyde conjugates of amino acids, including the neurotransmitters glycine, gamma-amino-butyric acid and glutamate, and a non-neuroactive amino acid, glutamine. These antibodies against paraformaldehyde conjugates specifically detect the above amino acids in paraformaldehyde-fixed tissues. The penetration of antibodies into paraformaldehyde-fixed tissues is much superior to the penetration of antibodies into glutaraldehyde-fixed tissues; hence good labeling can be observed through the depth of the tissues. Unlike glutaraldehyde, fixation with paraformaldehyde does not give rise to high levels of tissue autofluorescence and, thus, these antibodies are very effective for immunofluorescence studies. Furthermore we suggest that the ability of these antibodies to detect amino acids in paraformaldehyde-fixed tissues will permit their use in situations where it is necessary to detect other other fixation-sensitive antigens, such as neurotransmitter receptors and transporters.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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