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J Infect Dis. 1995 May;171(5):1107-14.

A live attenuated bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 vaccine is safe, infectious, immunogenic, and phenotypically stable in infants and children.

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  • 1Department of International Health, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.


The safety, infectivity, immunogenicity, transmissibility, and phenotypic stability of an intranasal bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV-3) candidate vaccine was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3)-seronegative children, 92% were infected, and 92% developed a serum hemagglutination-inhibiting (HAI) antibody response to BPIV-3 and 61% to HPIV-3. Geometric mean HAI titers were 1:40 to BPIV-3 and 1:16 to HPIV-3. In studies to evaluate vaccine transmissibility, none of 14 placebo recipients in close contact with 14 vaccinees shed BPIV-3. BPIV-3 isolates from seronegative vaccinees retained the attenuation phenotype when tested in rhesus monkeys. Although it is difficult to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of such a vaccine in an open population of children who frequently become infected with HPIV-3, it appears that the live BPIV-3 vaccine is attenuated, infectious, immunogenic, poorly transmissible, and phenotypically stable and warrants further evaluation as a candidate vaccine in infants and children.

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