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Cytometry. 1995 Feb 1;19(2):134-45.

Cell cycle analysis of amount and distribution of nuclear DNA topoisomerase I as determined by fluorescence digital imaging microscopy.

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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38101-0318, USA.


Fluorescence digital imaging microscopy (FDIM) has been used to perform a cell cycle analysis of both the amount and the distribution of nuclear DNA topoisomerase I in individual CEM human leukemia cells. Cells were stained by indirect immunofluorescence methods using a polyclonal antiserum generated with a 21-amino-acid peptide representing amino acids 219-239 of human topoisomerase I. Immunohistochemical staining was followed by staining with Hoechst dye 33342, allowing DNA content to be determined in each cell. Cell cycle analysis showed that nuclear topoisomerase I content doubled (2.2-fold increase) as the cells progressed from G1 to G2/M phases of the cell cycle. However, when normalized for nuclear size, topoisomerase I content per nuclear area remained almost constant (1.3-fold increase). For comparison, we measured the amount of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a protein whose expression fluctuates during the cell cycle. Nuclear PCNA content increased 2.7-fold from G1 to S phase, then declined in G2/M- phases, whereas PCNA content per nuclear area increased 1.7-fold from G1 to S phase. We also measured topoisomerase I content in leucine-deprived cells to determine if altered growth conditions affect topoisomerase I protein expression. Compared to CEM cells in logarithmic growth, leucine-deprived CEM cells had 1.8-fold less topoisomerase I content per nuclear area. Subnuclear distribution studies of proliferating CEM cells showed topoisomerase I to be localized predominantly in the nucleoli throughout the cell cycle. In contrast, leucine-deprived cells exhibited a perinuclear distribution of topoisomerase I. Our results show that FDIM is a useful technique in determining the cell cycle position and both the content and the distribution of topoisomerase I as well as other nuclear proteins in individual cells.

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