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Mol Biol Evol. 1995 May;12(3):391-404.

Molecular phylogeny and divergence times of drosophilid species.

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Institute of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA.


The phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of 39 drosophilid species were studied by using the coding region of the Adh gene. Four genera--Scaptodrosophila, Zaprionus, Drosophila, and Scaptomyza (from Hawaii)--and three Drosophila subgenera--Drosophila, Engiscaptomyza, and Sophophora--were included. After conducting statistical analyses of the nucleotide sequences of the Adh, Adhr (Adh-related gene), and nuclear rRNA genes and a 905-bp segment of mitochondrial DNA, we used Scaptodrosophila as the outgroup. The phylogenetic tree obtained showed that the first major division of drosophilid species occurs between subgenus Sophophora (genus Drosophila) and the group including subgenera Drosophila and Engiscaptomyza plus the genera Zaprionus and Scaptomyza. Subgenus Sophophora is then divided into D. willistoni and the clade of D. obscura and D. melanogaster species groups. In the other major drosophilid group, Zaprionus first separates from the other species, and then D. immigrans leaves the remaining group of species. This remaining group then splits into the D. repleta group and the Hawaiian drosophilid cluster (Hawaiian Drosophila, Engiscaptomyza, and Scaptomyza). Engiscaptomyza and Scaptomyza are tightly clustered. Each of the D. repleta, D. obscura, and D. melanogaster groups is monophyletic. The splitting of subgenera Drosophila and Sophophora apparently occurred about 40 Mya, whereas the D. repleta group and the Hawaiian drosophilid cluster separated about 32 Mya. By contrast, the splitting of Engiscaptomyza and Scaptomyza occurred only about 11 Mya, suggesting that Scaptomyza experienced a rapid morphological evolution. The D. obscura and D. melanogaster groups apparently diverged about 25 Mya. Many of the D. repleta group species studied here have two functional Adh genes (Adh-1 and Adh-2), and these duplicated genes can be explained by two duplication events.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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