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Cancer. 1995 May 15;75(10):2565-70.

Expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in human bladder cancer.

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Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Japan.



Elevated expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) has been reported in several types of human cancer. However, the significance of TGF-beta 1 expression in clinical bladder cancer is not well known.


The levels of TGF-beta 1 expression were quantitated using a polymerase chain reaction-based method in tissue specimens obtained from 51 patients with bladder cancer.


Transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression in bladder cancer was higher than that found in normal bladder epithelium (P < 0.01). Significantly higher levels of TGF-beta 1 transcripts were observed in low and intermediate grade (Grade 1 and 2) tumors than in high grade (Grade 3) tumors (P < 0.02). Superficial (pTa and pT1) tumors had higher levels of TGF-beta 1 than invasive (pT2 or higher) tumors (P < 0.05).


These results suggest that enhanced expression of TGF-beta 1 is specific to low grade and stage bladder cancer. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 may play an important role in the early stages of human bladder cancer development, and TGF-beta 1 expression could provide a new relevant tumor marker for determining tumor progression in patients with bladder cancer.

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