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Ergonomics. 1995 Apr;38(4):763-76.

Musculoskeletal disorders among visual display terminal workers: individual, ergonomic, and work organizational factors.

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Department of Neuromedicine, National Institute of Occupational Health, Solna, Sweden.


A number of individual, ergonomic, and organizational factors of presumed importance for the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders were investigated in a group of 260 visual display terminal (VDT) workers. The cross-sectional study utilized medical and workplace investigations as well as questionnaires. The results were subjected to a multivariate analysis in order to find the major factors associated with various upper-body muscular problems. Several such factors were identified for each investigated type of musculoskeletal problem. Some were related to the individual: age, gender, woman with children at home, use of spectacles, smoking, stomach-related stress reactions, and negative affectivity. Organizational variables of importance were opportunities for flexible rest breaks, extreme peer contacts, task flexibility, and overtime. Identified ergonomic variables were static work posture, hand position, use of lower arm support, repeated work movements, and keyboard or VDT vertical position.

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