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Microbiol Immunol. 1994;38(12):951-5.

Studies on serological cross-reaction in sequential flavivirus infections.

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1
Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.

Abstract

Acute- and convalescent-phase sera from patients with dengue (DEN) hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and Japanese encephalitis (JE) that contained pre-existing flavivirus antibodies were tested for cross-reacting antibodies to DEN, JE and yellow fever (YF) viruses by a neutralization (N) test. A fourfold or greater rise in N antibody titer in the convalescent-phase was considered significant. Of 39 DHF cases, obtained at Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand, 15 (38.5%) showed a rise in DEN antibody titer, while another 15 (38.5%) showed a significant rise in both DEN and JE N antibody titers. On the other hand, eight (61.5%) of 13 JE cases obtained at the same Hospital, showed a significant rise in JE antibody titer, while two (15.4%) showed a significant rise in both DEN and JE antibody titers. Sucrose gradient centrifugation and fractionation of these two cross-reactive JE sera revealed that IgM class antibody was specific for JE, while IgG class antibody was cross-reactive. Of three JE cases with pre-existing YF antibody obtained in Okinawa, Japan, two showed a significant rise in YF and JE antibodies. Both IgM and IgG class antibodies to YF virus were elevated. These results indicate that the cross-reactivity among flaviviruses in different subgroups (complexes), was observed quite often, even by the N test, in sequential flavivirus infection.

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