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JAMA. 1995 Apr 19;273(15):1197-202.

Predictors for failure of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

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1
Johns Hopkins University, School of Public Health, Baltimore, Md., 21205, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To identify clinical and epidemiological factors associated with failure of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis in those receiving primary and secondary prophylaxis.

DESIGN:

Longitudinal cohort study of participants infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study who used PCP prophylaxis regimens after their T-helper lymphocyte counts had decreased to less than 0.200 x 10(9)/L (200/microL).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

Occurrence or recurrence of PCP.

RESULTS:

A total of 476 participants reported taking one or more of the following regimens: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), dapsone, and/or aerosolized pentamidine--367 as primary prophylaxis and 109 as secondary prophylaxis after a previous episode of PCP. A total of 92 (20%) developed PCP despite prophylaxis. The mean failure rates per person-year of follow-up were 16.0% for those receiving primary prophylaxis and 12.1% for those receiving secondary prophylaxis (P = .19). Median times to death after initiation of primary or secondary prophylaxis were 2.0 and 1.2 years, respectively. The main predictor for failure of PCP prophylaxis was profound T-helper lymphocytopenia; 86% of failures occurred after T-helper cell counts decreased to less than 0.075 x 10(9)/L and 76% occurred after counts decreased to less than 0.050 x 10(9)/L. In multivariate time-dependent analysis, when compared with counts between 0.100 x 10(9)/L and 0.200 x 10(9)/L, the risk ratio for failure with counts less than 0.050 x 10(9)/L was 2.90 (P < .001). Once T-helper cell counts were considered, fever was the only other health status indicator that predicted subsequent PCP (ie, a time-dependent risk ratio of 2.22; P = .01). Use of TMP-SMX as the prophylaxis regimen was protective but did not eliminate failure (ie, a time-dependent risk ratio of 0.55; P = .03).

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings strongly support identifying improved methods of PCP prophylaxis once T-helper cell counts decrease to less than 0.075 x 10(9)/L or 0.100 x 10(9)/L. Given this severe degree of immunosuppression, an inherently more effective regimen against P carinii is required.

PMID:
7707627
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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