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J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1994 Dec;10(4):574-84.

Mosquito control then, now, and in the future.

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Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside 92521, USA.


This is a memorial lecture honoring the late Professor Stanley B. Freeborn of the University of California. In the spirit of his life-long academic and research interests in mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases, I am presenting here the evolution of vector control technology, especially that pertaining to mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases during the 20th century. Vector control technology in the first half of this century was relatively simple, utilizing source reduction, larvivorous fish, petroleum hydrocarbon oils, and some simple synthetic and botanical materials. During the 2nd half of this century, however, various classes of synthetic organic chemicals, improved petroleum oil formulations, insect growth regulators, synthetic pyrethroids, and microbial control agents were developed and employed in mosquito control and control of other disease-vectoring insects. Among these groups of control agents, petroleum oil formulations have endured to be used through the whole century. It is likely that petroleum oil formulations, insect growth regulators, and microbial control agents will provide the main thrust against vectors at least during the first quarter of the 21st century. It is also possible that effective tools through the development of vaccines and molecular entomology techniques might become available for the control of vectors and vector-borne diseases during this period of the 21st century.

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